Segmenting Words from Speech
  • Sohail, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). How transitional probabilities and the edge effect contribute to listeners' phonological bootstrapping success. Language Learning and Development, 12(2), 105-115. doi.org/10.1080/15475441.2015.1073153 [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K., Seidl, A., & Tyler, M.D. (2014). The edge factor in early word segmentation: utterance-level prosody enables word form extraction by 6-month-olds. PLOS ONE, 9, e83546. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083546

  • Kooijman, V., Junge, C., Johnson, E.K., Hagoort P., & Cutler, A. (2013). Predictive brain signals of linguistic development. Frontiers in Language Sciences, 4, 1-13. doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00025

  • Johnson, E.K. (2012). Bootstrapping language: Are infant statisticians up to the job? In: Statistical Learning and Language Acquisition, eds. P. Rebuschat & J. Williams, pp. 55-90. Mouton de Gruyter. [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2012). Infants exposed to fluent natural speech succeed at cross-gender word recognition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55, 554-560. doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0347) [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K. (2008). Infants use prosodically conditioned acoustic-phonetic cues to extract words from speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 123, EL144-EL148. doi.org/10.1121/1.2908407​ [pdf]

Recognizing Talkers
 
  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). Developmental improvements in talker recognition are specific to the native language. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 202. doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.104991 [pdf]

  • Yu, M., Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). The other accent effect in talker recognition: now you see it, now you don't. Cognitive Science, 45(6), e129896. doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12986 [pdf]

  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2019). By 4.5 months, linguistic experience already affects infants' talker processing abilities. Child Development, 90, 1535-1543. doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13280 [pdf]

  • Fecher, N., Paquette-Smith, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2019). Resolving the (apparent) talker recognition paradox in developmental speech perception. Infancy, 1-19. doi.org/10.1111/infa.12290 [pdf]

  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). The native-language benefit for talker identification is robust in 7.5-month-old infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 44(12), 1911-1920. doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000555 [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K., Bruggeman, L., & Cutler, A., (2018). Abstraction and the (misnamed) language familiarity effect. Cognitive Science, 42, 633-645. doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12520 [pdf]

Developing Speech Representations
 
  • Paquette-Smith, M., Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). Two-year-olds' sensitivity to subphonemic mismatch during online spoken word recognition. Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics, 78 (8), 2329-2340. doi.org/10.3758/s13414-016-1186-4 [pdf]

  • van der Feest, S., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). Input driven differences in toddlers' perception of a disappearing phonological contrast. Language Acquisition, 23 (2), 89-111. doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2015.1047096 [pdf]

 

  • Krieger, D., & Johnson, E.K. (2013). Six- and ten-month-old infants' perception of non-contrastive variation. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 19, 060072. doi.org/10.1121/1.4799205 [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2012). Infants exposed to fluent natural speech succeed at cross-gender word recognition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55, 554-560. doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0347) [pdf]

  • Schmale, R., Christià, A., Seidl, A., & Johnson, E.K. (2010). Developmental changes in infants' ability to cope with dialect variation in word recognition. Infancy, 15, 650-662. doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7078.2010.00032.x [pdf]

 
Receiving Linguistically Diverse Input
  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2022). Revisiting the talker recognition advantage in bilingual infants. The Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 214. doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2021.105276

  • Fung. P., & Johnson, E.K. (2020). Monolingual and bilingual toddlers’ reliance on the mutual exclusivity principle and statistics to learn colour labels. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Toronto, ON. [pdf]

  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2019). Bilingual infants excel at foreign-language talker recognition. Developmental Science, 22(4). doi.org/10.1111/desc.12778 [pdf]

  • Buckler, H., Oczak-Arsic, S., Siddiqui, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2017). Input matters: speed of word recognition in two-year-olds exposed to multiple accents. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 164, 87-100. doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2017.06.017 [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K. (2018). Putting the terms 'monolingual' and 'bilingual' under the microscope. Applied Psycholinguistics, 39(4), 753-756. doi.org/10.1017/S0142716418000206

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2017). Input matters: Multi-accent language exposure affects word form recognition in infancy. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Express Letters, 142(2), EL196-EL200. doi.org/10.1121/1.4997604 [pdf]

  • van der Feest, S. & Johnson, E.K. (2016). Input driven differences in toddlers' perception of a disappearing phonological contrast. Language Acquisition, 23 (2), 89-111. doi.org/10.1080/10489223.2015.1047096 [pdf]

  • Paquette-Smith, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2015). Spanish-accented English is Spanish to English-learning 5-month-olds. Proceedings of 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 18. [pdf]

Processing Other-Accented Speech
 
  • Cooper, A., Paquette-Smith, M., Bordignon, C., & Johnson, E.K. (2022). The influence of accent distance on perceptual adaptation in toddlers and adults. Language Learning and Development. doi: 10.1080/15475441.2022.2047688 [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., Paquette-Smith, M., Krieger, D., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). Infants' recognition of foreign-accented words: Flexible yet precise signal-to-word mapping strategies. Journal of Memory and Language, 100, 51-60. doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2018.01.003 [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., Krieger, D., & Johnson. E.K. (2015). The developmental trajectory of toddlers' comprehension of unfamiliar regional accents. Language Learning and Development, 11(1), 41-65. doi.org/10.1080/15475441.2013.879636 [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2014). Learning to contend with accents in infancy: Benefits of brief speaker exposure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 340-350. dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032192 [pdf]

  • Schmale, R., Christià, A., Seidl, A., & Johnson, E.K. (2010). Developmental changes in infants' ability to cope with dialect variation in word recognition. Infancy, 15, 650-662. doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7078.2010.00032.x [pdf]

Drawing Language-Based Social Inferences
 
  • Paquette-Smith, M., Bucker. H., & Johnson, E.K. (2022). How sociolinguistic factors shape children’s subjective impressions of teacher quality. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. doi:10.1177/17470218221094312 [pdf]

  •  

  • St. Pierre, T., & Johnson, E.K. (2020). The development of accent-based friendship preferences: age and language exposure matter. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Toronto, ON [pdf]

  • Paquette-Smith, M., Buckler, H., White, K., Choi, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2019). The effect of accent exposure on children's sociolinguistic evaluation of peers. Developmental Psychology, 55, 809-822. doi.org/10.1037/dev0000659 [pdf]

Developing a Voice Identity
 
  • Paquette-Smith, M., Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2022). Comparing phonetic convergence in children and adults. Language and Speech, 65, 240-260. doi.org/10.1177/00238309211013864 [pdf]

  • St. Pierre, T., Cooper, A., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). Cross-generational phonetic alignment between mothers and their children. Language Learning and Development. doi.org/10.1080/15475441.2021.1979401

  • Fung, P., Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). The development of gendered speech in children: Insights from adult L1 and L2 perceptions. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Express Letters, 1(1), 014407. doi.org/10.1121/10.0003322 [pdf]

Processing Co-Speech Gestures
 
  • Jesse, A., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). Audiovisual alignment of co-speech gestures to speech supports word learning in two-year-olds. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 145, 1-10. doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.12.002

  • Brar, J., Tyler, M.D., & Johnson, E.K. (2013). What you see is what you hear: how visual prosody affects artificial language learning in adults and children. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 19, 060068. doi.org/10.1121/1.4800523 [pdf]

  • Jesse, A., & Johnson, E.K. (2012). Prosodic temporal alignment of co-speech gestures to speech facilitates referent resolution. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, 38, 1567-1581. dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0027921 [pdf]

Learning New Words
 
  • St. Pierre, T., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). Looking for wugs in all the right places: Children's use of prepositions in word learning. Cognitive Science, 45 (8). doi.org/10.1111/cogs.13028 [pdf]

  • Fung. P., & Johnson, E.K. (2020). Monolingual and bilingual toddlers’ reliance on the mutual exclusivity principle and statistics to learn colour labels. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Toronto, ON.[pdf]

  • Paquette-Smith, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). Toddlers' use of grammatical and social cues to learn novel words. Language Learning and Development, 12, 328-337. doi.org/10.1080/15475441.2015.1112801 [pdf]

  • Jesse, A., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). Audiovisual alignment of co-speech gestures to speech supports word learning in two-year-olds. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 145, 1-10. doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.12.002

Processing Familiar Voices
 
  • Kragness, H.E., Johnson, E.K., & Cirelli, L. (2022). The song, not the singer: Infants prefer to listen to familiar songs, regardless of singer identity. Developmental Science, 25(1). doi.org/10.1111/desc.13149 [pdf]

  • Cooper, A., Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). Toddlers' comprehension of adult and child talkers: Adult targets versus vocal tract similarity. Cognition, 173, 16-20. doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.12.013 [pdf]

  • MacDonald, E.N., Johnson, E.K., Forsythe, J., Plante, P., & Munhall, K.G. (2012). Children's development of self-regulation in speech production. Current Biology, 22, 113-117. doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2011.11.052

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2012). Infants exposed to fluent natural speech succeed at cross-gender word recognition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 55, 554-560. doi.org/10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0347) [pdf]

The Perception-Production Link
 
  • Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2022). Voice onset time imitation in teens versus adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 65, 1839-1850. doi: 10.1044/2022_JSLHR-21-00460 [pdf]

  • Paquette-Smith, M., Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2022). Comparing phonetic convergence in children and adults. Language and Speech, 65, 240-260. doi.org/10.1177/00238309211013864 [pdf]

  • Cooper, A., Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). Toddlers' comprehension of adult and child talkers: Adult targets versus vocal tract similarity. Cognition, 173, 16-20. doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.12.013 [pdf]

  • MacDonald, E.N., Johnson, E.K., Forsythe, J., Plante, P., & Munhall, K.G. (2012). Children's development of self-regulation in speech production. Current Biology, 22, 113-117. doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2011.11.052

Developing Grammatical Knowledge
 
  • St. Pierre, T., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). Looking for wugs in all the right places: Children's use of prepositions in word learning. Cognitive Science, 45 (8). doi.org/10.1111/cogs.13028 [pdf]

  • Paquette-Smith, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). Toddlers' use of grammatical and social cues to learn novel words. Language Learning and Development, 12, 328-337. doi.org/10.1080/15475441.2015.1112801 [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2011). Gender-marked determiners help Dutch learners' word recognition when gender information itself does not. Journal of Child Language, 38, 87-100. doi.org/10.1017/s0305000909990146 [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2010). Linking infants' distributional learning abilities to natural language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 197-209. doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2010.04.001 [pdf]

Conceptual Processing while Listening
 
  • Mani, N., Johnson, E.K., McQueen, J.M., & Huettig, F. (2013). How yellow is your banana? Toddlers' language-mediated visual search in referent-present tasks. Developmental Psychology, 49, 1036-44. doi.org/10.1037/a0029382

  • Johnson, E.K., McQueen, J., & Huettig, F. (2011). Toddlers' language-mediated visual search: They need not have the words for it. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 1672-1682. doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2011.594165 [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K., & Huettig, F. (2011). Eye movements during language-mediated visual search reveal a strong link between overt visual attention and lexical processing in 36-month-olds. Psychological Research, 75, 35-42. doi.org/10.1007/s00426-010-0285-4 [pdf]

Defining Children's Speech Input
 
  • Buckler, H., Goy, H., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). What infant-directed speech tells us about the development of compensation for assimilation. The Journal of Phonetics, 66, 45-62. doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2017.09.004 [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K., Seidl, A., & Tyler, M.D. (2014). The edge factor in early word segmentation: utterance-level prosody enables word form extraction by 6-month-olds. PLOS ONE, 9, e83546. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083546

  • Johnson, E.K., Lahey, M., Ernestus, M., & Cutler, A. (2013). A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134, EL534-EL540. doi.org/10.1121/1.4828977

Processing Children's Speech
 
  • Yu, M., Cooper, A., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). Do you speak 'kid'? The role of experience in comprehending child speech. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 43, 1514-1520. [pdf]

  • Fung, P., Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). The development of gendered speech in children: Insights from adult L1 and L2 perceptions. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Express Letters, 1(1), 014407. doi.org/10.1121/10.0003322 [pdf]

  • Cooper, A., Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2020). Identifying children's voices. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 148, 324-333. doi.org/10.1121/10.0001576 [pdf]

  • Cooper, A., Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). Toddlers' comprehension of adult and child talkers: Adult targets versus vocal tract similarity. Cognition, 173, 16-20. doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.12.013 [pdf]

Theoretical Overviews
 

  • Johnson, E.K., & White, K. (2020). Developmental Sociolinguistics: children's acquisition of language variation. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews in Cognitive Science, 11(1). doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1515 [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K., & White, K. (2019). Six questions in infant speech and language development. In: Human Language: from Genes and Brains to Behavior, ed. P. Hagoort. pp. 99-112, Boston, MA: MIT Press. [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K. (2012). Bootstrapping language: Are infant statisticians up to the job? In: Statistical Learning and Language Acquisition, eds. P. Rebuschat & J. Williams, pp. 55-90. Mouton de Gruyter. [pdf]

Methodology: Tools, Tutorials, and Commentaries
 
  • Newman, R.S., Shroads, E.A., Johnson, E.K., Kamdar, J., Morini, G., Onishi, K., Smith, E., & Tincoff, R. (2021). Introducing BITTSy: The Behavioral Infant & Toddler Testing System. Behavior Research Methods, 53, 2604–2614. doi.org/10.3758/s13428-021-01583-9 [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K. (2018). Putting the terms 'monolingual' and 'bilingual' under the microscope. Applied Psycholinguistics, 39(4), 753-756. doi.org/10.1017/S0142716418000206

  • Johnson, E.K., Lahey, M., Ernestus, M., & Cutler, A. (2013). A multimodal corpus of speech to infant and adult listeners. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 134, EL534-EL540. doi.org/10.1121/1.4828977

  • Johnson, E.K., & van Heugten, M. (2012). Infant artificial language learning. In N.M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 1540-1542. [pdf]

  • Munhall, K.G., & Johnson, E.K. (2012). Speech Development: When to put your money where the mouth is. Current Biology, 22, R190-R192. doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.02.026

  • Zamuner, T.S., & Johnson, E.K. (2011). Methodology in phonological acquisition: Assessing the joint development of speech perception and production. In B. Botma, N. Kula, & K. Nasukawa (Eds.), Continuum Companion to Phonology (pp. 16-29). Amsterdam: Continuum. [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K., & Zamuner, T. (2010). Using infant and toddler testing methods in language acquisition research. In E. Blom & S. Unsworth (Eds.) Experimental Methods in Language Acquisition Research (pp. 73-94). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. [pdf]

  • Kooijman, V., Johnson, E.K., & Cutler, A. (2008). Reflections on reflections of infant word recognition. In Friederici, Thierry (ed.), In book entitled Early Language Development: Bridging Brain and Behaviour, Series Trends in Language Acquisition Research. (pp. 91-114). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company. [pdf]

Eye Tracking
 
  • St. Pierre, T., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). Looking for wugs in all the right places: Children's use of prepositions in word learning. Cognitive Science, 45. doi.org/10.1111/cogs.13028 [pdf]

  • Cooper, A., Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). Toddlers' comprehension of adult and child talkers: Adult targets versus vocal tract similarity. Cognition, 173, 1620. doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2017.12.01 [pdf]

Infant Habituation
 
  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2019). By 4.5 months, linguistic experience already affects infants' talker processing abilities. Child Development, 90, 1535-1543. doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13280 [pdf]

  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2019). Bilingual infants excel at foreign-language talker recognition. Developmental Science. doi.org/10.1111/desc.12778 [pdf]

Headturn Preference
 
  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2017). Input matters: Multi-accent language exposure affects word form recognition in infancy. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Express Letters, 142(2), EL196-EL200. doi.org/10.1121/1.4997604 [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2014). Learning to contend with accents in infancy: Benefits of brief speaker exposure. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 340-350. dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032192 [pdf]

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson E.K. (2010). Linking infants' distributional learning abilities to natural language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 197-209. doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2010.04.001 [pdf]

Production Studies
 
  • Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2022). Voice onset time imitation in teens versus adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Researchdoi: 10.1044/2022_JSLHR-21-00460 [pdf]

  • Paquette-Smith, M., Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2022). Comparing phonetic convergence in children and adults. Language and Speech, 65, 240-260. doi.org/10.1177/00238309211013864 [pdf]

  • Buckler, H., Goy, H., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). What infant-directed speech tells us about the development of compensation for assimilation. The Journal of Phonetics, 66, 45-62. doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2017.09.004 [pdf]

Corpus Studies
 
  • Buckler, H., Goy, H., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). What infant-directed speech tells us about the development of compensation for assimilation. The Journal of Phonetics, 66, 45-62. doi.org/10.1016/j.wocn.2017.09.004 [pdf]

  • Johnson, E.K., Seidl, A., & Tyler, M.D. (2014). The edge factor in early word segmentation: utterance-level prosody enables word form extraction by 6-month-olds. PLOS ONE, 9, e83546. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083546

  • van Heugten, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2010). Linking infants' distributional learning abilities to natural language acquisition. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 197-209. doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2010.04.001 [pdf]

Grabbing/Choosing
 
  • Paquette-Smith, M., Buckler, H., White, K., Choi, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2019). The effect of accent exposure on children's sociolinguistic evaluation of peers. Developmental Psychology, 55, 809-822. doi.org/10.1037/dev0000659 [pdf]

  • Paquette-Smith, M., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). I don't like the tone of your voice: Infants use vocal affect to socially evaluate others. Infancy, 21(1), 104-121. doi.org/10.1111/infa.12098 [pdf]

Video Game Tasks
 
  • Cooper, A., Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2020). Identifying children's voices. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 148, 324-333. doi.org/10.1121/10.0001576 [pdf]

  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2018). Effects of language experience and task demands on talker recognition by children and adults. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 143, 2409-2418. doi.org/10.1121/1.5032199 [pdf]

Standardized Tests
 
  • Fecher, N., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). Developmental improvements in talker recognition are specific to the native language. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 202. doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2020.104991 [pdf]

  • St. Pierre, T., & Johnson, E.K. (2020). The development of accent-based friendship preferences: age and language exposure matter. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Toronto, ON. [pdf]

Artificial Languages
 
  • Sohail, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2016). How transitional probabilities and the edge effect contribute to listeners' phonological bootstrapping success. Language Learning and Development, 12(2), 105-115. doi.org/10.1080/15475441.2015.1073153 [pdf]

  • Brar, J., Tyler, M.D., & Johnson, E.K. (2013). What you see is what you hear: how visual prosody affects artificial language learning in adults and children. Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, 19, 060068. doi.org/10.1121/1.4800523 [pdf]

Adult Perception Studies
 
  • Fung, P., Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). The development of gendered speech in children: Insights from adult L1 and L2 perceptions. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America Express Letters, 1(1), 014407. doi.org/10.1121/10.0003322 [pdf]

  • Yu, M., Schertz, J., & Johnson, E.K. (2021). The other accent effect in talker recognition: now you see it, now you don't. Cognitive Science, 45(6). doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12986 [pdf]